A new power plant every week for 20 years, new
nukes, drilling in the Arctic Wildlife Refuge - is this an energy policy, or a payback for President Bush's big campaign contributors? From the moment George W Bush announced he was running for president, $50m came in from Texas-based energy companies. But
they are hundreds of millions of dollars better off from his time as governor of Texas - and because of decisions taken in
the first months of his presidency.
When it comes to pollution, Texas is champ,
the number one state in emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic chemicals. A
visit to the city of Houston is enough to confirm that status. A 24 km (15 mile) wide forest of smokestacks stands on the
edge of Houston, a place famous for pumping out pollution, profits and the political donations which put George Bush into
the White House. There a mile long cloud of black smoke, with flames 60 metres
(200 ft) high erupts out of a Houston cracking plant as a ruined batch of ethylene and other toxic chemicals is burned off
after a hydrogen line snapped. Such accidents are common on this side of Houston,
where poisonous smoke rains on local neighbourhoods.
LaNell Anderson lived in the shadow of the Houston
smoke stacks - her mother and father both died young, victims of bone cancer and lung disease, which made Ms Anderson suspicious. She started taking air samples after an ethylene leak caused the local high
school running team to collapse on the track. Lab analysis of her bucket samples
has found carcinogens in the air that are way above legal limits. She has
since found that local cancer cases are twice the normal rate.
Driving around the area it is possible to smell
hydrogen sulphide in the air, a contravention of regulations. "They're not supposed
to be releasing anything, these are outside chemical impacts, that's not supposed to happen its supposed to stop at the fence,"
she says. So how do the polluters get away with it? Ms. Anderson has her own theory about "vending machine governance, where the lobbyists put the money in
and out comes slacker regulation."
Centre for petrochemicals
Texas is the centre of America's petrochemical
industry - home to the nation's biggest refinery, Exxon's plant in Baytown. Ms.
Anderson has Exxon in her sights, "they're the largest emitter in Harris County and they have the worst attitude of any corporation
I've ever witnessed," she said. Exxon would not accept her assessment and neither
would George W Bush. As Texas governor, Mr. Bush quietly set up a committee led
by Exxon, with other big oil and chemical companies, to advise him what to do about the state's deadly air pollution. Regulators wanted compulsory cuts in emissions of up to 50% - this "secret" committee
instead proposed making the cuts voluntary. Mr. Bush duly steered the polluters
plan through the state legislature.
Texas anti-corruption law made it illegal to
donate money to Mr. Bush as governor whilst such legislation was under consideration.
But that month, Mr. Bush declared for his candidacy for president - making the $150,000 donated by committee members
and their representatives completely legal. The bill passed and pollution did
go down - by just 3% - saving the companies hundreds of millions of dollars compared to the compulsory cut. And there has been a bonus for chemical industry donors since Mr. Bush became president. The BBC's Newsnight programme learnt he is quietly restricting public access to estimates of the number
of people who will burn or die in the event of a catastrophic explosion near these plants.
A walk through downtown Houston takes you past
the headquarters of some of Mr Bush's biggest campaign fund donors. The El Paso
Corporation, which gave $750,000 to the Republican campaign, is now under investigation for manipulating the California power
market. Other big contributors include Dynegy, which gave $300,000 and Reliant,
which gave $600,000. And the Enron Corporation, America's number one power trading
company, has given more money than any other to Mr Bush's political campaigns. William
S Farish, president of W S Farish and Co, gave $140,000. Mr Bush subsequently made him ambassador to Great Britain.
Investigations are proceeding into profiteering
by power traders during the California energy crisis and blackouts. The state
of California has accused the El Paso Corporation and Dynegy of deliberately restricting the flow of natural gas through the
pipeline from Texas creating an artificial shortage which caused prices to go up ten-fold.
President Clinton ordered an end to speculation in energy prices in California, which bit into the profits of El Paso,
Reliant, Enron and Dynegy. Between them the four companies gave $3.5m to Mr Bush
and the Republicans. Three days after his inauguration Mr Bush swept away Mr Clinton's anti-speculation orders. Profits for these four power traders are now up $220m in the first quarter.
And protection against pollution is set to weaken further, the BBC's Newsnight programme has discovered that deep in
Mr Bush's new budget, the million-dollar fund for civil enforcement to deter pollution will be axed. In the future law enforcement will be left to locals.
THE BIGGEST INDUSTRY
DONATORS TO BUSH CAMPAIGN:
BP Amoco $800,000
Oil Corp $780,000