Published here are two of a number of reports by the U.N. on slavery
United Nations Commission on Human Rights Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights Working Group on Contemporary Forms
of Slavery 30th Session
Geneva 6-10 June 2005
Trafficking and forced labour of children in
the Gulf region
Children continue to be trafficked from countries such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sudan and Yemen to be used as camel jockeys in the UAE. Furthermore, Anti-Slavery International also has
evidence that children are also being trafficked to be used as camel jockeys in other Gulf states including Kuwait, Qatar,
Oman, and also internally in Sudan.
The use of children as jockeys in camel racing is itself extremely dangerous and can result in serious injury and
even death. Some children are also abused by the traffickers and employers, for example by depriving them of food and beating
them. The children's separation from their families and their transportation to a country where the people, culture and usually
the language are completely unknown leaves them dependent on their employers and de facto forced labourers.
The trafficking of children for use as camel jockeys is prohibited by International Labour Organization Conventions
29 and 182 and by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, all of which have been ratified by the UAE, Kuwait,
Oman, Qatar and Sudan. It is also prohibited under ILO Convention 138, which has been ratified by the UAE, Kuwait and Sudan.
The United Arab Emirates Anti-Slavery International understands that the Government of the United Arab Emirates
has introduced three new decrees to combat the use of children as camel jockeys, which relate to the requirement for camel
owners to bring underage camel jockeys to the authorities for repatriation; the obligation on children from certain countries,
where there is known to be a problem of trafficking for use as camel jockeys, to enter the UAE on their own individual passport;
and the prohibition of the use of camel jockeys under 16 years old or weighing less that 45 kilograms.
It is of concern that a new law against the use of child camel jockeys, which was announced at the end of March,
has not yet been passed. We would ask the Government to provide details of this legislation and when it will come into effect,
and also details of the above decrees, indicating how they will be effective in ending the use of child jockeys, when previous
measures have failed to do so.
It must be noted that these new measures are the latest in a series that have been announced by the UAE over many
The Government itself reported to the Committee on the Application of Standards in 2003, and in previous
years, that the employment of any child under the age of 15 has been prohibited since 1980 under the Federal Labour Code.
The UAE's independent Camel Jockey Association has had a rule since the early 1990s that using children
younger than 14 or lighter than 45 kilograms as camel jockeys is prohibited.
In 1993 UAE President Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan al-Nahyan banned the use of children as camel jockeys.
In July 2002, Sheikh Hamdan bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Chairman of the Emirates Camel Racing Federation
and Minister for Foreign Affairs, promulgated Order No.1/6/266, prohibiting children under 15 or weighing less than 45kg from
being employed in camel racing. It also specified that all camel jockeys must have proof of their age through their passports
and be issued with a medical certificate by the Camel Racing Federation. A fine of 20,000 dirhams (US$5,500) will be imposed
for a first offence and a second offence will lead to a ban from camel racing for one year. A prison sentence of three months
along with a fine of 20,000 dirhams will be imposed for subsequent offences. The ban came into effect on 1 September 2002.
It is of serious concern that despite all of these initiatives the evidence below clearly shows that children are
still being trafficked to work in the UAE as camel jockeys.
On 20 February 2005, the Pakistan Embassy in Abu Dhabi
repatriated a nine-year-old camel jockey to Pakistan, as reported in the media 1. The boy was placed in an Edhi
Foundation shelter in Karachi. According to information from the Edhi Foundation
and the Centre for Research and Social Development, he was taken to the UAE with his father from their home in southern Punjab via Karachi. He worked as a camel jockey for six years. Initially he worked in Abu Dhabi, and then worked in six or seven different places mostly in UAE states. The
last race he participated in was in January 2005. Normally he would get up at around 4am, or in winter, and work seven days a week. His employers beat him and he broke
his arm on at least two occasions during camel races. He also told of two Sudanese boys who worked with him as camel jockeys,
and six other Pakistani boys in the last camp he worked at. There is no indication that the Sheikhs concerned nor the handlers
were prosecuted or that the other boys mentioned have subsequently been rescued and rehabilitated.
Also in February 2005, Anti-Slavery International received photographic evidence from credible
sources of child camel jockeys training at the Nad al Sheba racetrack outside Dubai (copies available).
According to media reports in November 2004 2, Pakistan's Minister for Overseas Pakistanis, Tariq Azim, stated
that some 2,000 children from countries such as Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Mauritania are working in camel race clubs in the UAE. Many others
have either died or been crippled, according to the Minister. He referred to several recent cases of Pakistani children returned
from the UAE after working for several years as camel jockeys.
In October 2004 a documentary shown by the US television broadcaster, HBO, featured footage of children training on camels
and living in squalid conditions with poor food and a lack of amenities. The programme also includes substantial evidence
that children were beaten and abused, including showing children with bruises and scars.3
The Ansar Burney Welfare Trust International (ABWTI) reports that it has rescued several other
child camel jockeys, including six boys aged between 12 and 15 who were returned to Pakistan in August 2004 having worked as camel jockeys for
at least two years. The ABWTI also announced that a five-year-old Pakistani boy died after a fall from a camel in Al-Ain,
UAE on 28 September 2004.
The boy fell off the camel during training on 15 September, and the camel trampled him leaving serious head injuries from
which he did not recover.
In September and October 2004 the Bangladesh National Women Lawyers' Association provided Anti-Slavery
International with details of several cases involving Bangladeshi children who had been trafficked to the UAE to work as camel
jockeys. These included eight boys who were still thought to be working as camel jockeys in the UAE. All of the eight boys
were between three and twelve years of age when trafficked.
Also in 2004, Anti-Slavery International obtained photographs of dozens of camel jockeys who appear
to be between the ages of six and 14. The photographs were taken in January 2004, mostly at the Nad Al Sheba racecourse in
Dubai and include children exercising camels, training,
preparing for races and racing. In training, young children are seen alongside adults, but only children take part in the
race itself. Many of the children in the photos are clearly under the age of 12; the majority of the jockeys participating
in races appear to be well below the age of 15.
Anti-Slavery International was provided with information documenting the cases of two Sudanese
camel jockeys who had been repatriated to Sudan in 2004 (February and May respectively). The Sudanese boys were approximately five and
six years old respectively when they were taken abroad. Both had worked as camel jockeys for around six years before being
returned to Sudan. While one had worked exclusively in the UAE the other
had worked in Qatar as well as the UAE.
Evidence of child camel jockeys beyond the UAE As has already been indicated, there is evidence that children
are being trafficked and used as camel jockeys in Kuwait, Oman and Qatar, and also within Sudan. Some of this evidence is outlined below:
A picture of a camel race in Oman, printed in the 26 November 2004 issue of The Guardian, clearly shows the use of underage camel jockeys (copy available).
Anti-Slavery International has been provided with information regarding a camel races that took
place in Abutalha, near Kassala, eastern Sudan, 5-7 October 2004, organised by the Sudanese Camel Race Association (SCRA).
This evidence includes film footage of the races. Officials from the SCRA, the Arab Union for Camel Races and the Kuwait Camel
Racing Club attended the races. The camel jockeys appear to be children aged between seven and 13 years old, some from the
local area and some from other regions of Sudan.
In September 2004 there were media reports that Qatar was drafting a bill to ban the use of under
18 year olds as camel jockeys in an attempt to curb the trafficking of children for use in the sport, indicating that this
was a problem in the country.4
The 2005 report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child
pornography, notes a large amount of cases received concerning the issue of trafficking of children to be used as camel jockeys.
These include the case of A.I.A., a child trafficked from Sudan to Abu Dhabi when he was five years old in 1998. He was used as a camel jockey in Kuwait as well as the UAE
and ended up in Doha, from where he returned home in February 2004.5
On 2 March 2003, The Denver Post carried a feature following a journalist and photographer who spent seven days at the Kuwait
Camel Racing Club in Sulaibiya, outside KuwaitCity. They reported that around 15-30 children, mostly
African, regularly trained and raced at the club and lived in tents nearby. The photographs accompanying the piece clearly
show young children riding camels, training, and in the camps.6
In 2003 and again in 2005 the ILO Committee of Experts report expressed concern at the situation of
children under 18 years of age involved in camel racing in Oman and asks for information regarding the recent promulgation
of by-laws prohibiting forced labour and the worst forms of child labour.
In its 2003 and 2005 reports the ILO Committee of Experts also raises concern about child camel
jockeys in Qatar. In its 2005 report it "invites the Government to
redouble its efforts to improve the situation and to take, without delay, the necessary measures to ensure that no children
under 18 are trafficked to Qatar for sexual or labour exploitation, including camel racing."
Anti-Slavery International is very concerned that this evidence points to the fact that the trafficking of children
to work as camel jockeys is a problem in several Gulf states. Anti-Slavery International therefore urges the governments of all the states in the region to take measures to ensure
this practice is eliminated.
Implementing measures to combat the trafficking of children as camel jockeys Reports of very young children (between
four and 12 years old) being used as camel jockeys in the UAE have been brought before this Working Group every year for the
last eight years. The information above clearly shows that boys below the age of 15 continue to be used as camel jockeys in
contravention of the law. It also indicates that children are being used as camel jockeys in Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Sudan. It is noteworthy that the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and
child pornography, states in his 2005 report that, "the number of individual cases of boys trafficked to be used as camel
jockeys received by the Special Rapporteur highlights a pattern indicating that this problem persists and that measures need
to be taken to address it."
However, prosecutions of those exploiting camel jockeys remain extremely rare. For example, information provided
by the Government of the UAE to the ILO direct contacts mission in October 2003 revealed only three successful prosecutions,
all of foreign nationals, since the 2002 law came into effect. Given the very public use of underage camel jockeys as evidenced
above and the fact that the UAE Government states that the police are carrying out inspections during races, this is an extremely
It is also vital that measures taken to combat the use of children as camel jockeys in any of these countries, ensure
that the children receive full rehabilitative care and that repatriation is carried out appropriately and sensitively. Rehabilitation
must include psychiatric care and counselling to deal with the traumatic experiences they have been through and to help adjust
to their freedom; bridging education to bring them up to speed with their peer group; and medical care for injuries suffered.
Steps must be taken to try to trace parents before the child leaves the destination country, and full child protection and
rehabilitation services must also be made available in the home country. The Gulf states could help to support poorer countries of origin to provide such services.
In the past there have been cases where children have been handed over to traffickers posing as parents and in some cases
parents themselves have been involved in the trafficking. Solutions must be found for those children whose parents cannot
be traced or for whom family reunion would be inappropriate.
Outstanding recommendations The ILO Committee of Experts (2005) expressed concern about the trafficking of children
to be used as camel jockeys in the UAE, in Oman and in Qatar. It invited the Government of the UAE to "redouble its efforts to improve
the situation and to take, without delay, the necessary measure to ensure that no children under 18 years are trafficked to
Arab Emirates for labour exploitation, including camel racing". The Committee reminded the Government of Oman that it "shall take
the necessary measures to ensure that no children under 18 perform work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which
it is carried out, is likely to harm their health, safety or morals". The Committee invited the Government of Qatar to "take,
without delay, the necessary measures to ensure that no children under 18 are trafficked to Qatar for sexual or labour exploitation, including camel
In addition to these recommendations, Anti-Slavery International would also urge the Governments of the UAE, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Sudan to:
Take urgent steps to implement legislation, including carrying out regular unannounced inspections
to identify, release and rehabilitate any child who is being used as a camel jockey and ensuring that all those responsible
for trafficking and employing underage jockeys are prosecuted. In particular measures taken to rehabilitate and repatriate
child camel jockeys must ensure that children are provided with all the psychiatric and medical care, counselling and education
they require, that family tracing is carried out before repatriation, and that services are put in place to care for the child
if family reunion is not possible.
Provide full statistics, broken down by year, of all the prosecutions brought, successful convictions
obtained and the sentences passed against those trafficking and employing camel jockeys since 1 September 2002.
Introduce, as a matter of priority, legislation that prohibits and punishes the employment of children
under the age of 18 in hazardous work or work that could jeopardise their health or safety, including as camel jockeys.
Ratify and implement the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in
Persons, Especially Women and Children (2000), supplementing the Convention on Transnational Organized Crime.
1 Nine-year Boy Used to Work as Camel Jockey in Abu Dhabi
Arrives Karachi, Pakistan Press International
Information Services, 21 February 2005. 2 Children Continue to be Smuggled for Camel Races, Daily Times, Pakistan, 14 November 2004, and
Pak Kids Continue to be Smuggled for Camel Races, Hindustan Times, 16 November 2004. 3
Perskie, Joe, Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel, HBO, 19 October 2004. Footage was shot
between May and August 2004. 4 Qatar Set to Ban Underage Camel Jockeys, Agence France Presse, 8 September 2004. 5 Report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution
and child pornography, Juan Miguel Petit, E/CN.4/2005/78/Add.3, 8 March 2005 6 Saddled with a Risky Ride -- Child
camel jockeys key to sport of camel racing in the Kuwaiti desert, Denver Post, 2 March 2003. The photographs, with detailed
captions, are available online at http://www.nppa.org/competitions/ best_of_still_photojournalism/2004/winners/still/index.cfm?category=SPS&place=1st
United Nations Commission on Human Rights Sub-Commission
on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery 30th Session
Geneva 6-10 June 2005
Abductions and forced
labour in Sudan
Despite strong and repeated censure by the International Labour Organization's supervisory
mechanisms between 1997 and 2005, abductions and forced labour remain a reality in Sudan.
Thousands of people are still awaiting release and new abductions have taken place in both 2003 and 2004.
The Government has claimed that "abductions have stopped completely" 1. However, information compiled from various sources provides evidence that abductions have continued in 2003
The 2005 ILO Committee of Experts report 2 itself refers
to "…the convergence of allegations and the broad consensus among United Nations bodies, the representative organizations
of workers and non-governmental organizations concerning the continuing existence and scope of the practices of abductions
and exaction of forced labour".
On 2 January 2004, at least 13 people,
the majority of whom were children, were reportedly abducted by Janjaweed militia from Ma'un village near Kornoy, according
to Amnesty International. Amnesty International received reports of other abductions of children in West Darfur
in the weeks prior to this.
In March 2004, seven UN Special Rapporteurs along with the Secretary General's representative
on internally displaced persons issued a joint statement expressing concern over widespread human rights abuses, including
reports of abductions, in the Darfur region of Sudan.
The UN estimates that since 2003, nearly one million people have been displaced by fighting between the Government and its
militias and two armed opposition groups (the Sudan Liberation Army and the Justice and Equality Movement).
In an interview on 2 April 2004, the UN
Emergency Relief Co-ordinator, Jan Egeland, noted that large numbers of civilians have been killed and "scores of women and
children have been abducted, raped and tortured." The UN Co-ordinator said that the Janjaweed militia was primarily
responsible for carrying out these attacks and that there was a consistent pattern of grave human violations against the civilian
population, which he considered to be ethnic cleansing.
The report of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Situation of human rights in the Darfur
region of the Sudan, issued on 7 May 2004, also refers to "some specific reports of abductions, particularly by the Janjaweed".
In one case an internally displaced woman alleged that her nine-month old twins had been abducted.
In July 2004, Amnesty International released a report on Darfur3, which also confirmed that the Janjaweed militia has been primarily responsible for
the attacks. The report provided evidence, obtained from eyewitness accounts, relating to the abduction of 21 women and children
by the Janjaweed militia, with some clear cases of sexual slavery.
The UN Special Rapporteur on Sudan and NGO sources have also reported that abductions continued
to take place in and around the oilfields in the Western Upper Nile and Bahr El Ghazal regions during 2003 and that hundreds
of children were abducted and forcibly recruited by government allied militias in Unity State and in the Western Upper Nile
4. The latest United States State Department country report on Sudan,
released in 2005, also refers to "reports that children were forcibly conscripted".
The UN Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur5, January 2005, has reported cases of abduction and detention of men and boys to camps
where they are used for forced labour. The Commission has credible evidence that the military are in control of these camps
and army officers are aware of the illegal detention taking place. In one case a civilian was seized by the Janjaweed
after an attack on his village, kept in captivity in a Janjaweed camp and later shifted to a military camp in the area.
The UN report has also documented cases of abductions and sexual slavery, where women were
forcibly taken from their villages, held in confinement, repeatedly raped, and tortured to prevent them from escaping from
military camps and hideouts by Janjaweed and soldiers. It is reported that in February 2004 around 35 female students
were allegedly abducted and raped by the Janjaweed in Tawila and surrounding villages in North Darfur.
In March 2004, Janjaweed and 150 soldiers reportedly abducted and raped 16 young girls in Kutum, North Darfur.
Further cases of abductions, mass rape and sexual violence have been reported in the areas surrounding El Geneina, Disa, Silea
and Mukjar in West Darfur as well as Kailek, South Darfur.
The Commission has evidence of women being abducted on their way to market or in search of
water, close to military or Janjaweed camps. In March 2003, women were abducted, held for two or three days and raped
by members of the military in Tarne, North Darfur, where the Government of Sudan had established a
large military camp in the vicinity. During the Janjaweed attack on Mengarassa village, West Darfur
in November 2003, 20 girls were abducted and taken to the 'Ammar' camp. In January 2004, 21 girls were abducted during the
joint Government armed forces and Janjaweed attack on Kanjew, West Darfur. The Janjaweed
held the women for three months and some of them became pregnant as a result of rape during their confinement.
The Commission believes it has enough credible and verified information that rape and other
forms of sexual violence committed by the Janjaweed and Government soldiers in Darfur have been
widespread and systematic and amount to crimes against humanity.
"The awareness of the perpetrators that their violent acts were part of a systematic attack
on civilians may well be inferred from, among other things, the fact that they were cognizant that they would in fact enjoy
impunity. The Commission finds that the crimes of sexual violence committed in Darfur may amount to
rape as a crime against humanity, or sexual slavery as a crime against humanity." 6
This information clearly shows that the raids and abductions, which have been well documented
in previous years, have continued in 2003 and 2004 and that the Government has failed to take adequate steps to prevent them
or punish those responsible. It should be stressed that the practice of abductions and forced labour is, as underlined by
the Eminent Persons Group 7, "the product of a counter-insurgency strategy pursued by
successive governments in Khartoum". Furthermore, the Sudanese Government "has
failed to acknowledge its own responsibility for acts committed by militias and other forces under its authority. The lack
of judicial control and appropriate structures of military accountability means that militia members are able to act with
In April 2005 the UN Commission on Human Rights 8 called
upon the Government of Sudan to "bring the perpetrators to justice and end impunity for crimes committed in Darfur"
and to "disarm the Janjaweed militias and stop supporting them."
Criticisms made of CEAWC's progress A report by the Rift Valley Institute's (RVI)
Slavery and Abduction Project, issued in July 2003, noted that the RVI research had so far individually identified more than
12,000 people who had been violently abducted from Southern Sudan between 1983 and 2002.9
Over half the abductees were under 18 when abducted and, contrary to expectation, preliminary analysis indicated that the
majority of abductees were male.
Interviews with returnees indicate that those abducted are routinely subjected to forced labour
and other human rights abuse and RVI confirms the conclusion of the International Eminent Persons Group that "in a significant
number of cases, abduction is the first stage in a pattern of abuse that falls under the definition of slavery." The RVI project
estimates that over 11,000 of those abducted have still not been accounted for.
According to information from CEAWC and from the Sudanese Government itself, CEAWC (along
with other organisations) assisted 2,628 abductees to rejoin their families between 1999 and May 2004. Thus, according to
the estimates from CEAWC, the Dinka Chiefs Committee and the Rift Valley Institute, there are still some 10,000 abducted people
waiting to be identified and reunited with their families.
The identification and release of abducted women and children has therefore been extremely
slow and only a small percentage of the total number waiting to be released has been freed. Yet, according to the January
2003 report 10 referred to above, CEAWC plans "to document and reunify the remaining
11,500 cases, according to the estimates of the Dinka Committee, within one year from availability of funds". Given the limited
progress made by CEAWC in recent years, the assessment that CEAWC could identify and reunite more than 11,000 cases in one
year seems entirely unrealistic.
UNICEF11 in Southern Sudan has
also raised a number of concerns regarding the CEAWC operation. Namely, that some of those being rescued are not genuine former
abductees; some are not coming voluntarily or are being given misinformation to encourage them to come; and some families
are being split up with children being moved on unaccompanied. The process has also come under criticism as it appears that
tracing and documentation is incomplete and that resources and planning for transport, food, water, medical care and shelter
are insufficient. UNICEF also reports that CEAWC's returnees operation has been suspended since March 2005.
The Government has failed to prosecute those responsible for abductions CEAWC's
chairperson has the "powers normally enjoyed by the Minister of Justice to prosecute all cases of a criminal nature". However,
CEAWC has not pursued prosecutions against those responsible for abductions. In the 2003 document, CEAWC states it will seek
to resolve abductions through the Joint Tribal Committees, "but on the understanding that this amicable solution will be for
a specific period of time (till the end of 2003 if the necessary funds are provided) and thereafter resort will be to legal
action after having cleared the majority of cases".
The Government reported to the Standards Committee (2004), that it had approved the allocation
of US$400,000 a month to CEAWC to enable it carry out its action plan within its specified time frame. The Government also
reported that CEAWC considers that "legal proceedings were the only means to put an end to abduction".
Despite this commitment Anti-Slavery International is not aware that any prosecutions have
been brought to date. The US Country Report on Human Rights Practices (released 25
February 2004) noted that in Sudan "The Government
took no action to hold those responsible for the abductions and continued to support tribal militias."
Anti-Slavery International does not consider that existing punishments for the crimes of slavery
and abduction are being enforced, as witnessed by the evidence from the Eminent Persons Report that no prosecutions
have taken place in the last 16 years. Anti-Slavery International believes that ending the impunity, which those responsible
for enslaving people or using forced labour currently enjoy, is an important factor in ending the continuing cycle of abductions
and therefore considers that legal action should be initiated against all those responsible for abductions and those who refuse
to co-operate with CEAWC.
Anti-Slavery International believes that if legal proceedings are considered too lengthy,
then it is the Government's responsibility to ensure that the system is expedited. Similarly, if an individual may be endangered
by a prosecution then the Government should provide victim and witness protection mechanisms to ensure their safety. It should
also be stressed that while reuniting families should be a central aim, this may not always be possible (for example where
women have been abducted and used as sex slaves some husbands will disown their wives 12)
and should not be seen as an alternative to prosecutions.
Legal action should be initiated without delay against all those responsible for abductions.
This will end the impunity that those responsible for abductions currently enjoy and is clearly required by Article 25 of
ILO Convention No. 29, which specifies that States must ensure that "penalties imposed by law are really adequate and are
strictly enforced". Anti-Slavery International does not consider a one year prison sentence (which is currently the penalty
for the exaction of forced labour) to be adequate. Nor do we think that existing punishments, including for the crime of abduction
(punishable by 10 years' imprisonment), are being enforced as witnessed by the evidence from the Eminent Person's Report
that no prosecutions have taken place in the last 16 years.
Challenging this kind of impunity is made particularly difficult when the Sudanese Justice
Minister himself describes accusations that slavery is being practised in Sudan
as "baseless" (reported by the BBC on 21 July 2003). Statements like this13 give the impression that the Government does not regard the practice of abductions and
forced labour as a serious problem in Sudan, let alone a priority
Conclusion and recommendations It must be stressed that the Government has not publicly
acknowledged that forces under its control continue to be responsible for abductions and forced labour. The Government has
also failed to take action to prevent further abductions taking place and has not prosecuted those responsible for these human
rights violations. In view of this, Anti-Slavery International urges the Government of Sudan to:
Publicly state that abductions and all associated practices are illegal,
make the appropriate legislative amendments and fully enforce the law. Details of those prosecuted and sentences passed should
be made publicly available.
Disarm and control the militias that have been responsible for abductions
and other human rights violations against civilians.
Accept and fully implement the recommendations from the report of
the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Situation of human rights in the Darfur region of the Sudan
(E/CN.4/2005/3, 7 May 2004).
To grant the Special Rapporteur unrestricted access to all relevant
areas in undertaking their work.
To consider abductions and slavery as serious human rights violations
to be addressed by the new, rewritten constitution.
We would also urge the Special Rapporteur to review the extent to
which the recommendations made by the Eminent Persons Group have been implemented.
1 ILO Committee of Experts Report,
2004, p. 166. 2 ILO Committee of Experts Report, 2005, p. 185. 3 Amnesty International, Sudan, Darfur: Rape as a weapon of war, 19 July 2004, AFR 54/076/2004. 4 Referred to in the UN Special Rapporteur on Sudan's 2003 report to the UNCHR
and by the International Crisis Group report, 10
February 2003. 5 Report of the International
Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General, Geneva, 25 January 2005. 6 See the Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General, Geneva, 25 January 2005, op. cit. p. 159. 7 The Report of the International Eminent Persons Group (with members from the United States, United Kingdom, Italy, Norway and France), Slavery, Abduction
and Forced Servitude in Sudan was published on 22
May 2002 after a fact finding mission to Sudan. 8 The Commission on Human Rights, Human Rights Resolution 2005/82. 9 This is in line with three estimates cited
in the Report of the International Eminent Persons Group (22 May 2002), which put the total
number of people abducted at approximately 14,000. 10 Dr. Ahmed El Mufti, The Experience of the Committee for the Eradication
of Abduction of Women and Children (CEAWC) -- Sudan: Gathering information, documentation, tracing and reunification of persons
abducted during armed conflicts, January 2003, p 5. 11 See the Monthly Report, February 2005, UNICEF Southern Sudan.
12 See testimony in Amnesty International, Sudan, Darfur: Rape as a weapon of war, op. cit. p.
13. 13 Another example would be the Government of Sudan's claim that the "figures in the report of the Committee of Experts of about 5,000-14,000 abducted
persons were extremely exaggerated and had no resemblance to reality". ILO Committee on the Application of Standards, June
Original sin is the difference between your pleasures and my pleasures--BF Skinner